Hindu Orthodoxy versus Indian Pluralism

The Dilemma of Human Security





Human security, identity, Hindutva majoritarianism, Communalism, RSS, BJP


The rise of Hindutva or Neo-Hindu nationalism has undermined the inclusive, all embracing and coexisting nature of Indian secular democracy. The political utilization of the doctrine of Hindutva has led to multi-dimensional challenges in the Hindu majoritarian state of India. The exercise of extant communalism has driven the Indian minorities to a state of constant insecurity. It reflects religio-nationalist identity politics particularly under the Modi regime, which is posing security challenges to multiple communities in India. The divided Communalism with Hindu majoritarianism has characterized the state of India with deeply entrenched Hindu racial supremacy that has caused increasing human insecurity in India. The study analyses how the rise of Hindutva is creating problems for the Indian pluralism. The study argues that the rise of ultra-Hindu-nationalism in practice of populist identity intellectual leadership in India has threatened the human security at the domestic level.

Author Biography

Zukhruf Amin, Independent Researcher

Zukhruf Amin is an independent researcher based in Islamabad, Pakistan. She completed her M.Phil. in
Peace and Conflict Studies and Masters in International Relations, from National Defence University,

Additional Files



How to Cite

Amin, Z. (2023). Hindu Orthodoxy versus Indian Pluralism: The Dilemma of Human Security. Review of Human Rights, 9(1), 101–117. https://doi.org/10.35994/rhr.v9i1.242